Your complete Turabian citation guide

Turabian Citation

The Turabian citation style was developed by Kate Turabian for all students, and she was the woman who has worked as a dissertation secretary in the University of Chicago for many years. It’s a sub-style based on Chicago format writing. Nowadays, Turabian format guidelines are used by students for most historical papers and some other academic disciplines. It was developed to help students.

Turabian style methods and systems

p>The Chicago style is standard and students use it to format all kinds of scholarly books, while the Turabian paper format has a narrowed focus and refined rules for academic writing. It omits some data relevant to publishing, and it’s different from the Chicago format in some other ways. The Turabian bibliography format uses two systems to cite information. You need to choose one of them when formatting your paper and avoid mixing them:

  • Parenthetical (you need to use in-text citations and include a special reference list of works cited in the end of your academic assignment);
  • Notes and bibliography (use endnotes and footnotes in your bibliography and text).

This formatting style is often used when writing academic papers for social disciplines and historical periodicals. It’s one of the most popular formats in the US.


What are the most notable features?icago Turabian citation rules have some unique features, such as:

  • The use of Turabian footnotes and endnotes (endnotes should be in the end of your paper arranged in their numerical order, while footnotes are at the foot of pages);
  • References to all notes follow the passages where quotes are used and marked by specific Arabic figures in a superscript;
  • When notes are mentioned for the first time, they must contain the necessary bibliographical data, such as titles, author names, publication places and dates, publishers, and page numbers;
  • Your Turabian bibliography should contain only the sources that you refer to or quote in your essay, they must be arranged in their alphabetical order, and contain the necessary bibliographical data;
  • If sources have two authors, mention their names;
  • If your sources that three or more authors, name the first one in endnotes or footnotes and list others in a bibliography;
  • If only compliers or editors are known, mark their names with a special abbreviation;
  • When it comes to electronic documents, mention the date when you access them and their web addresses.


What are basic structure requirements? general, when writing any Turabian style paper, meet the following requirements:

  • Use double spacing (when you add block quotations, this rule can be avoided);
  • Use a plain font and special margins;
  • Avoid adding spaces between paragraphs;
  • Don’t number a title page;
  • Write a page number and your surname on the right side on the top of every page.

When using this formatting style, include annotations for reproduced or rewritten excerpts. Your paper should include the main body, title page, and references. You should start with a title page or a Turabian cover page, write the main body, and finish by introducing your Turabian style bibliography that must include all the references that you use to write this essay.

Title pages writing a title page in this format, pay close attention to spacing and the specific requirements of your professor about its outline. What are basic requirements? Stick to these important rules when writing this page:

  • If your title exceeds 1 row, you need to use double spacing;
  • Write your full name in the middle of this page and center it;
  • Write your course or class number, date, and professor’s name and use double spacing (each one should be positioned in distinct rows).

How to use in-text references?sing the Turabian format, ensure that your references in brackets follow these rules:

  • Avoid using acronyms;
  • Include a page number, date, and author’s surname;
  • Don’t add punctuation marks between issuing dates and authors’ surnames;
  • Place a comma between page numbers and years;
  • If authors are unknown, use the abbreviated title of your chosen works;
  • All references in brackets should follow straightforward quotes (use annotations when you rewrite any data);
  • When quoting the same pages, specify the entire work after your last citation.

In this popular citation style, the main trick is that you need to add references after every quote, and it may become a bit superfluous. That’s why you should add fewer references. However, some professors think that using many references in academic papers is better than using too few of them.

How to

How to add endnotes and footnotes?an essay, it’s necessary to add endnotes and footnotes each time when you use plain citations or reworded summaries of specific works. Endnotes are the anthologies of work citations. Include them in the end of each chapter or your essay. When it comes to annotations, you should add them in the end of the page where you cite specific sources or works.

Feel free to use either endnotes or footnotes. No matter of your choice, start by adding superscript numbers and attach important bibliographical data to them. The first entry must contain the necessary information. Indicate work titles, publications, and authors’ complete names. When referencing the same work, its entry should include the abbreviated version of its title, authors’ last names, and page numbers.

When writing your Turabian essay, you may choose to use footnotes because they have a number of distinct advantages, such as providing you with a swift access to important data. Why do most students prefer to use them? That’s because they find it much easier to use them instead of puzzling and lengthy bibliography sections, and footnotes have no flaws and can contain more information.

How to write a

How to write a special bibliography section? in this format should come in the end and enumerate all the sources that you used to write your academic paper. Include even the ones you mention using annotations. Meet the following requirements when writing it:

  • Use an alphabetical order;
  • Add all the sources that you use and list other pertinent works;
  • Add and center the word “bibliography”.

How to add referenc

How to add references?and the surname of authors. Use italics when it comes to such lengthy sources as periodicals and books, and use quotes for shorter works, including poetry pieces, articles, and chapters. Mention publishing companies and add periodical names. Separate all crucial elements by using special periods.

Concluding words

Concluding wordsan formatting style is more concerned with citations and bibliographies. There are some exceptions when writing a paper in this format. That’s why all students need to check the latest manual for extra references, more narrow examples, and more specific information to earn the highest grades possible.

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