Cancer is an aggressive disease that affects thousands of people worldwide. It can affect different body parts – from brain and lungs to skin and tissues. There are several main types of cancer including sarcoma, carcinoma, leukemia, lymphoma, and brain and spire cord cancers, which differ by the part of the body they initially affect (WebMD, 2017). Although they all have different manifestations, the pathogenesis is always the same – they develop when healthy cells begin dividing in an uncontrolled fashion, causing serious damage to the body (Frank, 2011). In this short essay, I aim to provide a brief overview of the primary types of cancer and their progression, as well as provide recommendations regarding the prevention and timely diagnosis of this disease.
To begin with, let me explain how the mentioned types of cancer differ. Carcinoma is the type that affects the tissues or skin and then develops to affect nearby organs (Frank, 2011). It is somewhat similar to sarcoma, which begins with different types of tissues (e.g., fat, muscles, blood vessels, etc.). The type affecting blood-forming tissue is called leukemia, and it is characterized by the production of excessive amount of blood cells that ultimately affect the whole body. Lymphoma, in turn, affects the immune system and lymph nodes, while brain and spinal cord cancers begin with the nervous system (Frank, 2011). Notably, although these types of cancer initially differ, they have the same pathophysiology and progression. If not diagnosed and treated timely, they spread throughout the human body in the process called metastasis, thus forming new tumors and making it difficult to fight the disease.
These types of cancer are also quite similar in the way they are treated. In most of the cases, a surgery is needed to remove the tumor from the body until it affects other organs and tissues. Furthermore, doctors often perform radiation therapy, which is the procedure during which the body is subject to high doses of radiation to kill the malignant cells. Chemotherapy has a similar goal, but it implies the consumption of certain drugs that affect cancer cells. Moreover, there are also immunotherapy, hormone therapy, stem cell transplantation, and some other methods that are used to help the person fight the disease (National Cancer Institute, n.d.). It is important to note that clinical trials conducted all over the world made these treatment methods more effective and evidence-based, which increases the changes to survive.
Another similarity between all these types of cancer is that they can be effectively prevented and diagnosed before they develop into aggressive, difficult-to-treat forms. Major advancements in cancer research during the past several decades make it possible to detect cancer risks, but only if a person checks regularly to prevent the disease. Thus, for example, women in the menopausal age are recommended to test for breast and ovarian cancer, while smokers should necessarily test for lung cancer regularly (American Cancer Society, n.d.). Moreover, it is important to stay healthy by controlling one’s diet, physical activity, alcohol and tobacco use, and sun exposure. Doctors remind that while some cancers are caused by genetic factors, most of the cases can be effectively prevented by strengthening the body and the general immune system.
To summarize, there are several most common types of cancer that affect different parts of the human body. Some of them begin in the skin while others affect blood and brain, but their pathogenesis is practically the same – they begin with unpredicted and aggressive division of cells that quickly spread throughout the body. Although cancer is a serious disease, the current diagnosis, treatment, and prevention methods make it possible to increase the survival rates and facilitate treatment and recovery. The main rule is to know your risks and visit your doctor regularly to control the situation.
This essay answered the question – What are the primary types of cancer, and in what ways are they related? It is a narrative essay sample and can be used for reference only. If you like this paper, place the order right now, and our creative and competent writers will do their best to provide you with an excellent work. You will see that our online academic writing services are the best on the market.
American Cancer Society. (n.d.). Stay healthy. Retrieved from https://www.cancer.org/healthy.html
Frank, D. A. (2011). Signaling pathways in cancer pathogenesis and therapy. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.
National Cancer Institute. (n.d.). Types of cancer treatment. Retrieved from https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/types
WebMD. (2017). Understanding cancer: The basics. Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/cancer/understanding-cancer-basics